The Shoeleather History Project

Stories from Hartford's Grassroots

Labor & Suffrage

The small plaque in the south corner of the State Capitol identifies the names of early 20th century Connecticut women who campaigned for the right to vote. One of those … Continue reading

November 13, 2015 · 1 Comment

Deeds, Not Words: Emmeline Pankhurst Speaks to Hartford

The British campaign to win the vote for women was led in large measure by Emmeline Pankhurst. She spoke to a Hartford audience in 1913 (see below). Her presentation is … Continue reading

November 8, 2015 · Leave a comment

Original Wobbly

I met the daughter of Pierce T. Wetter in August. Pierce was an original Wobbly. He was arrested in 1917 in a nationwide roundup of more than one hundred IWW … Continue reading

November 7, 2015 · 1 Comment

Beatrice Longman Breaks the Mold

Connecticut has no shortage of war memorials and statues featuring prominent business and political leaders. The celebration of the state’s ordinary working people, however, is almost nowhere to be found. … Continue reading

September 29, 2015 · 1 Comment

Remembering Butch Lewis

One friend of Butch’s called him the Pastor of Hartford’s North End. “A pastor is a shepherd, and everyone came to Butch with their problems.” With other Vietnam vets Butch started the Black Panther Party in Hartford. He never became a politician, never used his reputation for fame.

September 29, 2015 · Leave a comment

Kalos Society: Early Gay Liberation

On September 3, 1971, eleven Kalos Society members were arrested while protesting at a local gay bar where lesbians were being harassed by the management. The owners of The Park … Continue reading

September 16, 2015 · Leave a comment

Community Survival: Black Panther Programs

On May 1, 1969, Hartford’s Chamber of Commerce flanked Mayor Ann Uccello as she held up a broom on the city hall steps. This photo op for the press was … Continue reading

September 15, 2015 · Leave a comment

Another Look at the “Negro Governors”

Were the ceremonial “Negro Elections” a harmless practice, or way to diminish Connecticut’s complicity in slavery?

August 16, 2015 · Leave a comment

Rock and Roll vs. Racism

In 1955, the most racially integrated public space in Connecticut might have been the rock & roll concerts at Hartford’s State Theater. Despite the widespread discrimination against African Americans in … Continue reading

August 12, 2015 · 1 Comment

“The People are Indestructible:” UE General Strike in Hartford

Pratt & Whitney Machine Tool Company President Charles W. Deeds addressed several hundred embattled scabs and supervisors in the company cafeteria. He told them of his plans to put the … Continue reading

July 6, 2015 · Leave a comment

Class Struggle Comics: Winning a Strike!

On the 5th anniversary of their strike victory, District 1199 nursing home workers from Spectrum Healthcare explain what it took to win..

July 4, 2015 · 1 Comment

High School Students Teach Elders About the Free Press

Marcus Manselle was a Weaver High senior from Hartford who published the student newspaper The People’s Press. He was first to report that faculty and students began a picketing campaign … Continue reading

May 6, 2015 · Leave a comment

Carl Sandburg, People’s Poet

At one time, nationally-acclaimed poet Carl Sandburg was so popular in Connecticut that even his goats made the news. After his death in 1967, some of Sandburg’s herd was sold … Continue reading

April 17, 2015 · 1 Comment

Selma, Not So Far Away

Father Leonard Tartaglia was sometimes called Hartford’s “Hoodlum Priest.” Like the 1961 film of the same name, Tartaglia ministered to the city’s poor and disenfranchised. He challenged institutional racism wherever … Continue reading

March 13, 2015 · Leave a comment

The Woman in Red

If she hadn’t worn her red dress to the picket line, Amelia Sabich might have lived a normal, quiet life. But then, she would never have inspired thousands of workers–including … Continue reading

March 10, 2015 · Leave a comment

The Language of the Unheard

“No Danger of Race Riots in Hartford, Police Officials Say.” It was August 4, 1919.  Hartford’s African American ministers feared that the white mob violence raging through dozens of U. … Continue reading

March 3, 2015 · Leave a comment

Yanquis or Yankees?

Are we yanquis or yankees? In my small state of Connecticut (pop. 3.5 million), we have been both. From the Dutch word janke, the English translation was popularized by Mark Twain … Continue reading

January 5, 2015 · Leave a comment

Confronting Police Violence, from Ferguson to Hartford

“It is not enough for me to stand before you tonight and condemn riots…I must say that a riot is the language of the unheard.” –Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., … Continue reading

November 26, 2014 · 2 Comments

Bonus Veterans: An Army Without Guns

It was a warm Sunday night in Hartford on August 7, 1932. Several dozen men and women–exhausted, dirty, hungry– trudged into the city after a hard trip from Washington DC. … Continue reading

November 19, 2014 · Leave a comment

We Irish Are A Working Race

A cold morning in March, 1849. The angry Irish laborers marched from Hartford to East Hartford across the covered bridge that spanned the Connecticut River.  They converged at the  home … Continue reading

November 15, 2014 · 1 Comment

Jail Sit-Down Strike: Prison Rights Are Human Rights

Instead of returning to their cells for the night, 145 inmates at Hartford’s Seyms Street jail have organized a nonviolent sit down strike. They’re fed up with the poor treatment … Continue reading

November 11, 2014 · Leave a comment

Puerto Rican Youth Liberate Their Space

Just after dark, a dozen young Puerto Ricans approach 21 Kennedy Street, an abandoned building near Keney Tower. Within minutes they are inside, establishing the space as a liberated area … Continue reading

October 23, 2014 · Leave a comment

Breaking the UPS Race Barrier

One by one the young protestors approach the United Parcel Service (UPS) parking lot on Locust Street. It is May, 14, 1965. In unison, they sit down at the lot’s … Continue reading

October 22, 2014 · 2 Comments

Labor History, Family Histories

My grandmother Nellie Grace arrived in Boston from Ireland in 1909. On the ship manifest she was described as a domestic servant. Many people’s relations have come from similarly humble … Continue reading

September 15, 2014 · Leave a comment

Gay Pride, Straight Prejudice

Nancy Buckwalter and Tony Norris expected 150 people to show up at the Old State House for their event. Instead, over 300 lesbian, gay and transgender activists spent a hot … Continue reading

July 2, 2014 · 2 Comments

Mark Twain: Nation Building at the Point of a Gatling Gun

June 19th marks a significant incident in Connecticut history. Yet no one celebrates it. (No, I don’t mean Juneteenth, which is the African American community’s commemoration of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.) … Continue reading

June 19, 2014 · 1 Comment

Hell Hole: The Seyms Street Jail

For more than a century Seyms Street jail housed the criminal and the courageous. At one time or another, Wobblies, civil rights protestors, anti-war activists and Black Panthers all found … Continue reading

May 8, 2014 · 9 Comments

aka Jim Pembroke

The Reverend James W.C. Pennington, D.D. had been warmly received in Scotland, had his biography published in England, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from Heidelberg University in Germany. But … Continue reading

May 8, 2014 · Leave a comment

Isabel Blake, Welfare Warrior

Isabel Blake challenges state legislators to “meet with us and talk things over.” The legislators stay silent. “We don’t bite,” Blake says, “we don’t have much to eat, but we … Continue reading

April 15, 2014 · Leave a comment

Secret FBI Files 3: Lessons for Today

How the Phone company and the news media aided FBI spying in Hartford.

March 12, 2014 · 1 Comment

Secret FBI Files 2: The Black Panthers’ Work in Hartford

The National Archives released 1,582 pages on the Black Panther Party (BPP) in Hartford on March 6, 2014. Many pages are missing, of course, and many names have been redacted, … Continue reading

March 10, 2014 · 5 Comments

New: FBI Files Released on Hartford Black Panthers

Government spying on Hartford residents is not new. It dates back at least to 1919, when police and the U.S. Department of Justice secretly gathered information on–and infiltrated the ranks … Continue reading

March 2, 2014 · 14 Comments

Mayor Mark Twain

Could Mark Twain have become mayor of Hartford? Apparently, the Knights of Labor thought so. This 19th century labor union considered running “Mayor Clemens” in March of 1886. The notion … Continue reading

February 17, 2014 · 1 Comment

Shoeleather Quiz #2

1. What was the last film to play at the Meadows Drive-In Theater before it closed? 2. Which one of Hartford’s original founders made a woman “confess” to being a … Continue reading

January 22, 2014 · 1 Comment

The Fugitive and the Hero

The steamship Hero made its way up the Connecticut River. It was October 1, 1850; two men with different purposes were aboard the vessel. The first was a runaway slave, … Continue reading

January 22, 2014 · 3 Comments

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: Lessons from a Tragedy

Sol Bidek’s family lived in a tenement on Market Street in Hartford. They waited several days for word  from New York.  Finally, they got the news: their sister was safe. … Continue reading

January 19, 2014 · 1 Comment

Baseball Crazy

No ESPN, no sports radio, no internet scores. In 1913, all Hartford baseball fans had was the Megaphone Man. He stood in front of the old Hartford Courant building on … Continue reading

January 13, 2014 · 5 Comments

More Hidden History of the Wobblies

A Shoeleather History of the Wobblies: Stories of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in Connecticut is a new book that documents the organizing efforts of this unique labor group … Continue reading

January 10, 2014 · 5 Comments

No Part too Great or too Small

I think Bobby Sands is smiling. In 1981, Bobby was an Irish prisoner in a British jail. As a member of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), he led a hunger … Continue reading

January 6, 2014 · 1 Comment

Roberto Clemente, ¡Presente!

Why would a baseball star who died more than forty years ago have such a great impact on Hartford people? Maybe because Roberto Clemente was much more than a ball … Continue reading

January 2, 2014 · Leave a comment

Shoeleather Quiz # 1

1. From where did Mayor George Athanson broadcast his overnight radio show? 2. Which famous person spoke in Hartford? (a) John Brown; (b) Emma Goldman; (c) Abraham Lincoln; (c) Elizabeth … Continue reading

November 26, 2013 · 15 Comments

The Gandhi Strike

It’s been more than 75 years since the legendary Flint sit-down strike by Michigan autoworkers, a watershed event in American labor history. The 44 day strike had a powerful impact … Continue reading

November 23, 2013 · 1 Comment

We Won’t Starve Quietly

At the height of the Great Depression, thousands of Hartford people were thrown out of work. Like the rest of the country, the 1929 stock market crash meant disaster for … Continue reading

November 12, 2013 · Leave a comment

Jay Gould: Octopus of the Wires

“I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half,” said Jay Gould, probably the most ruthless “robber baron” of the 19th century. It was not … Continue reading

November 9, 2013 · Leave a comment

They fought for me and I fought for them

When he was about eight years old, Ernie DeMaio came home after school– more than once– with a black eye. He had been wearing the button his mother gave him, … Continue reading

November 9, 2013 · 1 Comment

No Room at the Inn

Ethel Thompson and her family reached Hartford after midnight. She entered the Hotel Essex on Main Street and went to the front desk to check in. The night clerk got … Continue reading

November 9, 2013 · Leave a comment

Why the Union Vote Counts

Will the union vote count on election day? For the last one hundred years it has, in Hartford and around the country. And every politician knows it, even if the … Continue reading

October 25, 2013 · Leave a comment

Heroes & Anti-Heroes

For more than a year, the prison authorities would not allow Avelino Gonzalez-Claudio proper medical treatment. Then, a month before he returned to a Hartford court on February 5, 2010, … Continue reading

September 23, 2013 · Leave a comment

No Business as Usual: Vietnam War

On a cool and sunny fall day in Hartford, ten thousand people jammed into Bushnell Park with one goal: to stop the war in Vietnam. As the single largest protest … Continue reading

August 29, 2013 · 3 Comments

Ralph Allen: “He have more than courage”

As 3,000 people left Connecticut by car, bus, and train to join the historic March on Washington, Hartford college student Ralph Allen was spending his 20th day in a Georgia … Continue reading

August 22, 2013 · 2 Comments

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